Calamus is a semi-evergreen herbaceous flowering plant that can be witnessed in swampy areas. It can grow up to a height of 9-15 feet. It contains tufts of basal leaves that are erect, radical, yellowish-brown, with pink sheathing on their bases. They are flat and narrow, somewhat sword-shaped that terminate into acute points. It is also found that the plants that grow in water bear flowers. It fruits barely, but when it does, it becomes the reason for the propagation of the calamus plant.
Calamus root is used to make medicine due to its remarkable pharmacological actions. It is famous for tending to gastrointestinal disorders, like flatulence, gastritis, ulcers, and loss of appetite. Calamus also serves as a muscle relaxant and sedative. It induces sweating to reduce flaring fevers, ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis due to its anti-inflammatory action, and cures certain skin diseases when applied topically.
The volatile oils found in the calamus are the reason for the distinctive taste and odor of the calamus. It majorly contains beta-asarone, alpha-asarone, saponins, lignans, sesquiterpenoids, and lectins.